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Harald Welte's netfilter blog

Fri, 11 Apr 2008

We don't do Advertisement on the homepage

For some reason, the amount of inquiries about companies who want to put ads on has significantly increased. Since the content of that site has not really changed much in the last (at least) four years, this sudden interest is somewhat surprising to me.

However, we are absolutely not interested in advertisements. I personally hate any form of advertisement, whether in print media, radio, TV, WWW or on billboards. In fact, advertisements are the reason for me to not watch any privately owned TV or radio stations for at least eight years.

So to all the advertising companies out there: Only over my dead body will there be any kind of banner ads on any of the websites of the projects in which I have anything to say.

Thu, 08 Nov 2007

My last netfilter training

Since I've been doing no netfilter/iptables related work recently, I've announced that the three day training is going to be the last one, at least for the time being.

Though stressful as usual (have you ever talked/presented straight 8 hours on three consecutive days?) it was a quite joyful experience. Apart from the netfilter/iptables workshop earlier this year, the only contact with my former much-beloved project in 2007.

However, the training made me realize how outdated all the existing documentation (and even my own training material) is. Basically everything was written in the early 2.4.x days - and much has changed ever since.

There's all the nf_conntrack / nf_nat related changes, as well as the x_tables transition, which can cause many subtle errors due to old scripts expecting different kernel module names, etc.

None of the HOWTO's or similar documents talk about the conntrack userspace program yet, there's no documentation (and no release) for ulogd2, etc.

So I'll really try to sit down and find some time to improve some of those areas. It yet remains to be seen if I can actually make it. But I feel there's a real gap to be filled...

Fri, 14 Sep 2007

netfilter developer workshop 2007 is over

The days of the netfilter workshop passed quite fast, and I'm finally back to my home in Berlin now. In case you're interested, here is a link to the group photo.

Among other things, we've had the following major decisions at the workshop:

  • Patrick McHardy finally officially head of the coreteam
  • ulogd2 will see an official release candidate soon
  • we want to merge ipset soon
  • we will try to shift future developments in the direction of libnl and slowly deprecate libnetfilter_*
  • we will move the netfilter and netfilter-devel lists to since we don't have to care about spam filtering there. Other, lower-traffic lists remain on
  • we will switch to git even for userspace code, at least for the iptables source code

Finally, I'd like to use this opportunity to thank all our Workshop sponsors, particularly Astaro for their continuous and generous support of netfilter/iptables throughout the last five years.

Tue, 11 Sep 2007

Enjoying the netfilter workshop 2007

I've returned to Germany in order to attend the 5th netfilter development workshop in Karlsruhe. It's sponsored by Astaro, whose continuing support of netfilter/iptables is really outstanding. Even after I took my "leave" to work on OpenMoko, they continue their funding by paying for Patricks maintenance of the netfilter/iptables codebase, and things like hosting the netfilter workshop.

It's really great to meet with the old colleagues with whom I've co-worked for a number of years on netfilter/iptables. I really miss those days, basically spending most of my day working together and communicating with cool people hacking on similar problems. Quite a bit different from what I'm doing right now.

So while I'm here, I'm actually trying to spend most of my time related to netfilter/iptables, which is really refreshing.

Sat, 20 Jan 2007

Getting back into netfilter/iptables work

I've been gone for long enough. Even though neither my RFID projects nor OpenMoko are anywhere close to be finished, I'm determined to get back into netfilter work again.

Started to catch up with mailing lists. There has been amazing progress, most notably the implementation of NAT for nf_conntrack, which finally should get us rid of the old ip_conntrack code in one of the upcoming kernel releases. No more support of two versions in parallel. And the ability to do IPv4 NAT and IPv6 connection tracking on the same machine. Isn't that all that we wanted? Not quite...

So for now, I'm participating in the discussions again, and I'm now also working on getting IPv6 interpreter plug-ins into ulogd2. The nfnetlink_log mechanism can happily send IPv6 packets to user space, it's just that ulogd2 doesn't yet know what to do with them. That needs to be changed.

Fri, 22 Dec 2006 up+running again

Only two months after the involuntary absence of (due to database corruption while doing a gentoo mysql update), I have finally found some time (and a way) to fix the problem. Therefore, as of today, is now up and running again.

This was possible due to the fact that the bugzilla tables were still present in myISAM format. The mysql tables of were not that lucky. They were stored in exactly that InnoDB file that got corrupted. However, the loss of archived (and lots of unmaintained) information on patches that had been submitted on netfilter-devel is not really all that important anyway.

However, let this be a lesson: Do daily dumps of all mysql tables in a cronjob before doing backups ;)

Sun, 18 Jun 2006 releases (almost), update on my netfilter involvement

It's been terrible to be away from netfilter development for about two months now. This really has to change, I have to cut down on other stuff if I don't want to loose track completely.

Anyway, I finally did what I wanted to do at least for many weeks: To push new releases of libnfnetlink, libnetfilter_log, libnetfilter_queue, libnetfilter_conntrack and conntrack. The files are available from their usual location. Haven't been in the mood to write changelogs yet, so if you're really interested in them, you'll have to wait for a bit more.

The main architectural change is that the internal api between libnfnetlink and libnetfilter_* has changed, e.g. caller-allocated structures are now callee-allocated. Apart from that, a very important bugfix was made in libnfnetlink, one that actually affects future-compatibility of the kernel/userspace interface.

For anything else, it's mainly a maintenance release.

libnetfilter_queue doesn't yet contain the bits required for the 'upcoming' libnetfilter_cthelper (userspace helpers), because I felt pushing that code without having the rest of the infrastructure plus some test cases running isn't really worth it.

So please include in your prayers that there are not too many gpl violations during the next couple of weeks, that I finally get hold of that stupid PPTP problem that is bugging me for many weeks. If that happens, I think I'll be back to netfilter stuff early next week after returning from the Barcelona GPLv3 event.

Not sure whether I mentioned it already: I'm actually skipping OLS (and kernel summit) this year in order to gain some time. Meeting folks and attending talks is a lot of fun, but it also (including the travel overhead, jetlag, drinking, etc.) eats a lot of time. So I'll actually take my long-announced pkttables holidays when the rest of the Linux kernel developers are in Ottawa. For those not familiar with the term: The idea is to 'go on holidays' (i.e. abandon anything else like reading emails, etc) and stay focused working on netfilter stuff for at least one week in order to finally see the ideas so far known as pkttables to finally materialize in one way or the other.

Meanwhile, I have to extend my deepest thanks to Patrick McHardy, and all the work he's been putting into netfilter maintenance over the last year or so.

Tue, 04 Apr 2006 downtime - moving and updating servers

I've spent the whole Monday in the hosting center where, and most of my other projects are hosted. The main reasons for this visit were:

  • do kernel updates on two boxes that are known to be difficult with new kernels
  • move all five machines to a new rack, the old one is too crowded (no space for new machines, too hot)
  • add yet another new box (, which makes the number of machines now six

As usual, Murphy's law applied, so about everything that could go wrong went wrong. And, confirming Murphy's law, the most important machine ( had the longest downtime, something close to 9 hours.

This was mainly due to the last Gentoo update overriding my custom-modified yaboot boot script (for using the serial port, this is a headless XServe cluster node) with the default one, which wants to use the non-existent framebuffer.

That combined with the fact that KDUMP-capable kernels can't be booted from OpenFirmware (why isn't this indicated in the menuconfig help???) and thus the new default boot kernel couldn't be booted from yaboot.

That day I've tried about anything, from attaching a powerbook with bootable cd in firewire target mode to booting yaboot via tftp (which fails to load yaboot.conf via tftp *sigh*).

Now I've learned my lesson: chattr +i on yaboot.conf and the modified boot script for serial console.

Wed, 22 Mar 2006

netfilter do_replace() bug is not remotely exploitable

I don't know how people like securityfocus and and others claim that the recently-discovered and fixed 'do_replace()' bug is remotely exploitable.

In fact, the bug (which was found and fixed by Solar Designer while working for the OpenVZ project) can only happen in a codepath that can be executed by the local root user. Not even a non-root user, neither any remote parties can hit that bug and/or exploit anything.

Fri, 10 Feb 2006

Working on Bug 404

Isn't it a strange coincidence, that a reasonably non-trivial netfilter bug gets the bugzilla ID 404 ?

Well, before I try to build some conspiracy theories about somebody manipulating the bug id number sequence generation of our bugzilla installation, I'd rather concentrate on the real work.

Dave Remien is an excellent bug reporter, so as a maintainer you can actually not expect anything more than his detailed documentation (yes, I know, certificate has expired, too lazy and busy to update it right now, stay tuned). From an outside perspective, it appears like packets get 'stuck' in nfnetlink_queue. In reality, it seems like the kernel is doing everything fine, just the library eats some packets from time to time, meaning that they remain inside the kernel queue and increase it's length (and thus leak memory) one at a time.

The real cause has yet to be discovered, I'm confident that there will be some news tomorrow.

Wed, 01 Feb 2006

iptables-1.3.5 is out

I've released iptables-1.3.5 earlier today. This will probably mark the last 'new feature' release of the iptables-1.3.x branch.

I'm still working on the initial beta release of iptables-1.4.x, the userspace counter part to what is now known in kernel space as 'x_tables'. Stay tuned.

Sat, 21 Jan 2006

iptables-1.4 branch opened

Since we now have the x_tables kernel side code in the upcoming 2.6.16 series, I'm working on getting iptables-1.4.x done to actually take advantage of the new kernel's abilities.

The main reason why people are interested in this, is to get matches like 'state' and 'conntrack' working for IPv6. Even though 2.6.15 has nf_conntrack and thus state tracking for IPv6, you cannot really use it from ip6tables yet.

The same goes for all native x_tables matches and targets. However, I think we'll also release a new version of iptables-1.3.x just with 'state' and 'conntrack' support, since it gives a more stable foundation for production users than a completely new 1.4.x branch with hundreds of kilobytes of patches.

Sun, 15 Jan 2006

userspace conntrack helper code compiles (yet untested)

Finally, both the kernel side (nfnetlink_helper) and the userspace side (libnetfilter_cthelper) code for userspace conntrack helper support is basically finished and compiles. I didn't yet dare to test it, and I'm rather heading off to bed now. Testing will be done tomorrow.

So how is this supposed to work? Well, basically a new nfnetlink subsystem exists, which can (on behalf of an userspace process) create dummy "nf_conntrack_helper" structures inside the kernel. Such a dummy structure has the usual properties (tuple, mask, timeout, etc.) but a dummy expectfn() which only calls NF_QUEUE() to send the packet to userspace. Userspace can then look at the packet, possibly modify it and re-inject it back into the kernel. Since helpers are now processed at a different netfilter hookfn() than the rest of the conntrack code, this actually works.

Now during the reception of such a packet in userspace, the process is likely going to want to create a new expectations. Expectations can already be created by means of libnetfilter_conntrack/nf_conntrack_netlink. However, in order to create the expectation, a number of things are needed. Mainly the tuple(s) of the master conntrack, but also other ancillary data such as ctinfo are sometimes desired. As long as we don't do NAT, the process could derive the tuple from the packet's IP[v6] header, and query nf_conntrack_netlink for the remaining details. However, this is inefficient since we'd add another kernel/userspace round-trip and the associated latency. So instead, I chose to extend nfnetlink_queue a bit, and allow it to have a new queue_mode (NFQ_MODE_PACKET_CT) in which there is a new nested attribute (NFQA_CT) which in turn contains the tuple, id and ctinfo.

Userspace now has all informations to create a new expectation. But wait, what do we do about expectfn()? We use the same magic as with helpfn(): Userspace tells the kernel to which nfnetlink_queue queue_id packets hitting the expectfn() should be sent. The 'minor' difficulty here is that expectfn() is called from the middle of the conntrack code (init_conntrack() actually), and when we get back from the queue (set_verdict or re-inject), then the netfilter hook code would continue at the next hookfn, skipping most of the conntrack code. But we can also return NF_REPEAT in order to call conntrack again. Since our expectation is already confirmed, expectfn() will not be called and it _SHOULD_ somehow just magically work, maybe with some tiny ugly hack here or there.

The NFQA_CT way is still far from being optimal, since we copy the same conntrack tuple for every packet of the control connection to userspace, no matter that this information never changes, and no matter that we actually only need it in those few cases where we want to raise an expectation. So the mid-term plan is to make userspace keep a small copy of selected conntrack state entries. This can be done by sending NEW and DELETE events for all conntracks that have a helper assigned. We could create a new multicast group specifically for this purpose, in order to keep the overhead and memory usage low. Userspace keeps a hash table indexed by ct->id. Packets sent via nfnetlink_queue will therefore only need a single 32bit ID attribute and not the full tuple(s).

Apart from userspace helper code, I've been working on getting some x_tables / nf_conntrack refcounting / dependency issues sorted out. Again another issue where having a couple of dozens of inter-dependant netfilter modules seems to become a major PITA. Sometimes I want to have back the simplicity of a truly monolithic kernel.

Sat, 14 Jan 2006

x_tables merged mainline

Linus has merged x_tables, even though I introduced some "doesn't build without IPv6 support" breakage that only somebody not into networking would ever detect (hey, would you build a kernel without ipv6?) ;)

Anyway, will try to be more cautious about these issues, as nobody wants to end up with a "your patches break the kernel tree" reputation.

Mon, 09 Jan 2006

ulogd-2.00beta1 release

Finally, there is a first public beta version of ulogd 2.x

If you use (and like) ulogd-1.x, you should definitely have a look at the 2.x release. Apart from packet-based logging, ulogd-2.x now also support flow-based logging. This means that you can just run this daemon (and a recent 2.6.14/2.6.15 kernel) to log per-connection meta data into text files, syslog, mysql, postgresql, or sqlite3 databases. If you enabled per-connection packet/byte counters in your kernel config, you even get flow-based accounting.

If you're interested, check it out at

Bug-reports welcome. Don't ask for too much documentation at this time, rather contribute some :)

Sun, 08 Jan 2006

x_tables, take 5. nfsim tested.

Today I've posted the (hopefully) final version of x_tables, the in-kernel generalization of {arp,ip,ip6}_tables to netfilter-devel.

After some nfsim hacking, I've been able to add x_tables support to nfsim and have been successfully running the full nfsim testsuite. The testsuite found a single bug (which has been fixed) but otherwise all tests are passed.

Seems like we're going to push x_tables as well as the nf_conntrack port of ctnetlink (nf_conntrack_netlink) for 2.6.16. Also, as I just noticed on kaber's blog, his IPsec patches have made it in time, too. Userspace conntrack helper support is definitely 2.6.17, though.

Fri, 09 Dec 2005

ulogd2 now has an abstract SQL/db layer

This means that there is now very little code duplication between the mysql and pgsql drivers, since all the high-level functionality is now 'abstracted away'.

Thu, 24 Nov 2005

Moved ulogd repository from to

ulogd has practically always been a sub-project of the netfilter project, but was hosted at for historical reasons. I've now cleaned this up.

ulogd-1.x is now hosted at, ulogd-2.x at

Tue, 15 Nov 2005

2.6.14.y stable series lacks lots of netfilter fixes

It seems like DaveM was away, there was some communication problem that lead to the fact that none of the netfilter related fixes went into 2.6.14.y series (up to so far. I'm sorry for that, and all the fixes have been submitted now.

So lets hope will have no known netfilter related bugs.

Sun, 13 Nov 2005

netfilter patch-bomb

To be more efficient in flooding DaveM with netfilter patches, I've now hacked up a set of 'wrapper scripts' around my git tree. They enable me to efficiently apply patches to my tree, generate sequential sets, and send them off (actually not using a mail user agent).

This means, that for now my patch submissions are (like those of 99.9% of the other kernel hackers) not PGP/GPG signed. If I find some time, I'll add that feature to my script.

Anyway, I've sent off the first set of 10 netfilter patches and it worked like a charm.

Thu, 10 Nov 2005

nf_conntrack went mainline!

Ok, finally. After David Miller has returned from his holidays, nf_conntrack has 'magically' ended up in the mainline tree. Stateful IPv6 packet filtering in vanilla 2.6.15 is therefore reality.

Thanks to Yasuyuki, DaveM, Acme and everybody else who has made this happen.

Sat, 05 Nov 2005

lots of releases

Today, I spent a lot of time doing releases of libnfnetlink, libnetfilter_log, libnetfilter_queue, libnetfilter_conntrack and the conntrack program.

The amount of manual XML editing, copying of files, checking in stuff, ... required to do a release is way too much. We definitely need some release automatization.

ulogd2 reaches beta state

ulogd2 has now reached beta stage, and it now has almost all the plugins of ulogd-1.x. Only the SQL database backends are missing. It also features a ctnetlink input plugin for flow-based accounting with 2.6.14 kernels.

Next, I'll be working on documentation, testing and on some simple IPFIX output plugin.

Thu, 03 Nov 2005

iptables-1.3.4 has been released

See the 1.3.4 release page and the ChangeLog.

Tue, 01 Nov 2005

Bug reports after 2.6.14 is out.

I've already received three different serious bug reports about problems with netfilter/iptables in 2.6.14. This is frustrating, considering how long the 2.6.14 development cycle was. People should try new features of a new kernel _before_ there is a release. Afterwards it's too late.

Sat, 29 Oct 2005

2.6.14 is out, 2.6.15 has opened.

This means that I've immediately pushed three netfilter related changesets, the biggest (307k unified diff, roughly 10k lines of code) was nf_conntrack.

Given the specific situation that David Miller is on holidays, and we have Arnaldo Carvalho de Melo maintaining the network stack meanwhile, Linus hasn't accepted that huge patch in the first round, since he lacked explanation why such a monster was required.

I hope my comments will convince him that nf_conntrack really is the way to go.... let's hope we'll have nf_conntrack mainline in one or two days.

I hope Yasuyuki (the main author behind nf_conntrack) will make a big party with his USAGI friends once that happens ;)

Thu, 27 Oct 2005

The modularity of iptables - or "ipt_SYSRQ"

One of the best early design choices of iptables was its support for plugin matches and plugin targets. Over the last five years, we have seen some 100 of such user-developed special-purpose plugins.

One that I find particularly funny is ipt_SYSRQ, a target module that allows you to issue the "magic sysreq" command via a network packet. This way you can sync, unmount and reboot a otherwise stuck machine that still responds to interrupts.

Obviously quite dangerous, but the author includes a time stamp and a cryptographic signature, so replay attacks can only occur in a very small time frame.

It's definitely a cool hack, although I'm not sure whether I'd want to put this on a production system or not.

Wed, 19 Oct 2005

Restructuring the project homepage

Some years ago, the netfilter project only had the kernel side netfilter/iptables code, and the userspace iptables program. Then we added patch-o-matic(-ng), and more recently there were a number of more sub-projects growing, like ipset, all the nfnetlink-related code, ctnetlink, etc.

Unfortunately the homepage design didn't really cope with the fact that there is now a more hierarchical structure with many sub-projects.

It was always my hope that some "new webmaster" would take care of it. Unfortunately we still don't have a webmaster, so I spent some time on it today. You can see the results at

Sun, 16 Oct 2005

net-2.6.15 tree has opened

Since DaveM is on holidays, Acme is now in charge of running the net-2.6.15 tree. I've already submitted nf_conntrack, the ip_conntrack hash table resizing code from Rusty, as well as "revisions" support for {arp,ip6}_tables.

I'm also basically finished with x_tables now. Everything has been merged with a post-nf_conntrack tree, and all the conntrack related matches/targets have been ported to x_tables.

Now I need to do some serious testing (including nfsim), before it can be submitted, too.

Fri, 07 Oct 2005

More netfilter work at workshop coding day 1

After having terminated the traditional workshop part, we've today had day 1 of the hacking sessions.

Despite the different topic, I spent the better part of the day with Michael Bellion and Henrik Nordstrom working out the details of nf-hipac / nfnetlink integration.

Apart from that, there's now a nf_conntrack header cleanup in my git tree, I've ported ebt_[u]log to nf[netlink]_log, fixed some minor Kconfig issues, merged some patches from Yasuyuki and Pablo, and pushed forward a round of fixes and updates to DaveM.

Thu, 06 Oct 2005

Second day of netfilter workshop

If I would start to write about everything that we discussed or only about the results from the discussions and presentations, I would probably need all night to write this blog entry.

It's been a very productive two days, and I'm looking forward to the hacking session that will happen on the next two days. Some of the TODO items for the hacking session will be:

  • nfnetlink-enabling nf-hipac
  • resolving some header file issues for 2.6.14 / nfnetlink
  • using Gandalf's hashtrie as conntrack hash
  • nfnetlink-enabling ipset
  • using string search api for pattern matching in conntrack helpers
  • completing userspace conntrack helpers using nfnetlink_{queue,conntrack}

Ok, have to stop for now, too much exciting stuff keeping me busy here :(

Mon, 03 Oct 2005

ulogd2 is working

I've managed to bring ulogd2 to a state where it finally does something. The dynamic key resolval/linking of plugin stacks is working, and some basic plugins (NFLOG input, IPV4 packet interpreter (BASE), LOGEMU output) are working, too.

So the remaining work will mostly be in the plugin area. We're currently missing

  • ctnetlink input
  • packet->flow aggregation (basically 'nacctd')
  • IPFIX input and output
  • convert the old mysql/pgsql/sqlite output plugins

If you're interested, patches are always welcome. The code can be downloaded via svn from

Sun, 02 Oct 2005

ulogd2 about to hit alpha state

Yet another of my projects that never received the amount of attention that was required is ulogd2. If you already know the ulogd-1.x series, then you know it as an efficient packet filter policy violation logging daemon, with backends for files, syslog and various SQL databases.

ulogd2 is much more than that. It's more abstract, and more universal. It's no longer limited to receiving packets from the ULOG target, but is fully modularized, with modules for ULOG, NFLOG (see linux-2.6.14), IPFIX, ctnetlink, ... Now you might wonder why there is something like IPFIX and ctnetlink? That's because ulogd2 can also process (aggregate, export) per-flow information.

The most difficult part of the implementation is the dynamic creation of "plugin stacks", but I think I wrote about this earlier in my blog.

The good news is, that just before I went to bed, ulogd2 compiled for the first time ;) This means I've waded through the tons of errors and warnings created by all the changes introduced since it forked off ulogd-1.x about a year ago.

Now there are some bits of missing functionality here and there, and certainly a large bunch of bugs. But if you are a software developer, you know it's much easier (and rewarding) once the beast actually runs :)

Wed, 28 Sep 2005 goes live

Following-up the recent site-wide installation of blosxom on, I've now also created our own At the moment, only three netfilter related blogs/journals/diaries are aggregated there, but with some luck (and your help, since you will have to tell me what other netfilter related weblogs) it will grow :)

Tue, 27 Sep 2005

netfilter developer blogs

I first wrote about this in early 2005: Having developer blogs on Unfortunately I never finished that project so far. I'm not really a web guy at all, so doing stuff related to (X)HTML and CSS always gives me the creeps. Why can't we just have a technically skilled web master volunteer for *sigh*

For those who're curious, you check out a mirror of this blog, or the early beginning of Gandalf's blog.

Every netfilter developer with an account on can easily set up a blog, just by putting blog articles into ~/weblog/.

Mon, 26 Sep 2005

Work on ulogd2

I've continued work on ulogd2, the next generation netfilter userspace logging daemon. In addition to packet-based logging, it supports flow-based logging.

It turns out my overly-flexible concept of plugin stacks ends up with quite some implementation complexity. The problem can be viewed similar to a linker problem (linking symbols of multiple objects), but in addition resolving dynamically changing dependencies, with some 'symbols' being optional, and with objects that you can ask "if I give you input symbol X, which output symbols can you give me" ?

I really need to do resolve some tax issues before the netfilter workshop, so I'm not sure whether I can finish it before.. especially since I've also started to merge years-old pkttables code into a recent kernel.

Sat, 24 Sep 2005

released libnfnetlink, libnfnetlink_conntrack and conntrack

This triple-release is in anticipation of a 2.6.14 kernel release. The two libs as well as the conntrack program are userspace counterparts to the "next generation" subsystems inside the kernel netfilter part.

The release involved lots of painful learning-by-doing of autoconf/automake. I'm not a fan of them at all, but I sill think it's less burden than trying to invent everything on your own (like we did with the iptables package) and thus forcing more burden onto the package maintainers of the distributions.

I'll probably release libnfnetlink_log and libnfnetlink_queue tomorrow... but I really don't have any time to work on netfilter at the moment, despite this TODO list :(.

Thu, 15 Sep 2005

Submitted the PPTP conntrack/nat helper to the mainline kernel

Following-up some serious testing today, I've finally submitted the latest version of the PPTP helper from the netfilter-2.6.14#pptp tree to the mainline kernel.

With some luck, it will be included before 2.6.14 gets final. It should go in, since it doesn't modify existing code but is merely an addition.

Also, please note that the "ip_conntrack_proto_gre.ko" and "ip_nat_proto_gre.ko" modules are gone with that 3.x version of the PPTP helper. The respective code has been integrated into ip_{conntrack,nat}_pptp.ko. My initial dream of doing some generic (non-PPTP) GRE connection tracking has evaporated, and thus the PPTP helper now really only handles the special case of pptp-GRE.

Wed, 31 Aug 2005

patchwork rulez!

Some time ago, Jeremy Kerr wrote the patchwork program as a means to track patches sent to mailing-lists (specifically netfilter-devel in our case).

I'm now using it more-or-less frequently and it has already uncovered a number of patches that got lost otherwise. Therefore I consider it a very helpful tool. Hopefully reports of netfilter-devel being "a write-only mailing-list" will cease now..

Tue, 30 Aug 2005

Linus has merged the net-2.6.14 tree from DaveM

This means that all the code from my netfilter-2.6.14 tree (master branch) are now in the mainline kernel. The code in question mainly includes

  • conntrack event notifiers
  • nfnetlink layer
  • ctnetlink interface
  • nf_log API extension
  • nf_queue and nf_log /proc files
  • nfnetlink_log as successor of ipt_ULOG and ebt_ulog
  • nfnetlink_queue as successor of ip_queue and ip6_queue

We'll see whether nf_conntrack will also go into 2.6.14, at the moment I have my doubts...

Copyright (C) 2001-2005 Harald Welte